Click to go to Public Site Click to goto DivEMS Dal Public Site Click to goto EHS Nova Scotia
Prehospital Evidence Based Practice   
Skip Navigation Links
PEP Database
MethodsExpand Methods
What's NewExpand What's New
PEP ProductivityExpand PEP Productivity
PEP Impact
AppraisersExpand Appraisers
Make a Suggestion
Covid-19 Corner
Paramedic Evidence
Based Practice Course
Expand Paramedic Evidence <br /> Based Practice Course
Links of Interest
Contact Us
Search Methods
We conduct a systematized search in PubMed each month to identify all literature related to EMS interventions. We include any primary research or formal systematic review on interventions that are currently practiced, or show promise for practice, in a contemporary EMS setting. These settings include ground, helicopter EMS and expanded scope paramedicine. Included studies must investigate outcomes that inform clinical decision-making therefore purely epidemiological reports or monetary investigations are not included. Details on our inclusion and exclusion criteria
Our search strategy has been developed with the help of a Health Sciences Librarian. This strategy has been developed to be sensitive to our inclusion criteria.
See detailed search below:
((("Emergency Medical Services"[mh] OR "Emergency Medical Technicians"[mh] OR paramedic*[tiab] OR "emergency medical technician*"[tiab] OR prehospital[tiab] OR pre-hospital[tiab] OR "out of hospital"[tiab] OR first responder*[tiab] OR emergency responder*[tiab] OR ambulance[tiab]))) AND (((randomized controlled trial[pt] OR controlled clinical trial[pt] OR randomized[tiab] OR placebo[tiab] OR "Clinical Trials as Topic"[mesh: noexp] OR randomly[tiab] OR trial[ti]) OR ("Epidemiologic Studies"[mesh: noexp] OR "Case-Control Studies"[mh] OR "Cohort Studies"[mh] OR case control[tw] OR case series[tw] OR case report*[tw] OR case study[tw] OR case studies[tw] OR cohort study[tw] OR cohort studies[tw] OR cohort analy*[tw] OR follow up study[tw] OR follow up studies[tw] OR observational study[tw] OR observational studies[tw] OR longitudinal[tw] OR retrospective[tw] OR cross sectional[tw] OR "Cross-Sectional Studies"[mh]) OR (systematic[sb])) NOT (editorial[pt] OR guideline[pt] OR letter[pt] OR news[pt] OR newspaper article[pt] OR (animals[mh] NOT humans[mh]))) AND (20xx/xx:20xx/xx [dp])
Once annually, targeted searches are run for some unique intervention areas where the majority of the literature may not be indexed with EMS/emergency terms. (e.g. perinatal, neonatal, EENT or palliative care).
Our PubMed results are screened in Covidence review software at the title/abstract level. After which, the full texts are briefly reviewed for inclusion and intervention assignment by the program coordinator. The remaining literature is distributed to the international appraisal team for review.
The Dalhousie University Division of EMS would like to acknowledge health science librarians Katie McLean, Leah Boulos and Robin Parker for their assistance in developing our searches strategies.
Covidence systematic review software, Veritas Health Innovation, Melbourne, Australia. Available at