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Stroke-CVA-TIA

Date Last Search Run: Feb 01, 2022
Table last updated: Apr 02, 2022
Data last added: Mar 30, 2022

Recommendation RECOMMENDATION FOR INTERVENTION
STRENGTH OF EVIDENCE FOR INTERVENTION   SUPPORTIVE (Green) NEUTRAL (Yellow) AGAINST (Red) NOT YET GRADED (White)
1 (strong evidence exists)  
2 (fair evidence exists)  
3 (weak evidence exists)    


Interventions

12-Lead ECG
Level Direction Primary Outcome Patient/Process Setting Reference
III Supportive (Green) Cardiac Arrhythmia Patient Bobinger T., Kallmünzer B., Kopp M., Kurka N., Arnold M., Heider S., et al. Diagnostic value of prehospital ECG in acute stroke patients. Neurology 2017;88(20):1894-8. Medline
III Supportive (Green) Prevalence of abnormalities and effect on prognosis and outcome Process Munro SF., Cooke D., Kiln-Barfoot V., Quinn T. The use and impact of 12-lead electrocardiograms in acute stroke patients: A systematic review. European heart journal Acute cardiovascular care 2018;7(3):257-63. Medline

Advanced Notice/ Optimal Trip Destination
Level Direction Primary Outcome Patient/Process Setting Reference
I Supportive (Green) Time to stroke centre, number receiving thrombolysis Process PH-Paramedic Berglund A., Svensson L., Sjostrand C., et al. Higher prehospital priority level of stroke improves thrombolysis frequency and time to stroke unit: The hyper acute Stroke alarm (HASTA) study. Stroke 2012; 43(10):2666-70. Medline
II Supportive (Green) ED arrival to CT time Process PH-Paramedic Abdullah A, Smith E, Biddinger PD, Kalendarien D, Schwamm LD. Advance hospital notification by EMS in acute stroke is associated with shorted door to CT time and increased likelihood of administration of TPA. Prehosp Emerg Care 2008; 12:426-31. Medline
II Supportive (Green) Rates of TPA Process PH-Paramedic Baldereschi M., Piccardi B., Di Carlo A., Lucente G., Guidetti D., Consoli D., et al. Relevance of prehospital stroke code activation for acute treatment measures in stroke care: a review. Cerebrovasc Dis 2012; 34(3):182-90. Medline
II Supportive (Green) Door-to-CT-ordered time Process Other Cone DC, Cooley C, Ferguson J, Harrell AJ, Luk JH, Martin-Gill C, et al. Observational Multicenter Study of a Direct-to-CT Protocol for EMS-transported Patients with Suspected Stroke. PEC 2017; 22(1):1-6. Medline
II Supportive (Green) Improved TPA access for stroke patients Process ED-MD Gladstone D., Rodan L., Sahlas D., et al. A Citywide Prehospital Protocol Increases Access to Stroke Thrombolysis in Toronto. Stroke 2008; 40(12):3841-4. Medline
II Supportive (Green) Door-to-needle Process PH-Paramedic Hsieh MJ, Tang SC., Chiang WC., Tsai LK., Jeng JS., Ma MH., et al. Effect of prehospital notification on acute stroke care: a multicenter study. Scand J Trauma Resusc Emerg Med 2016; 24:57-016-0251-2. Medline
II Supportive (Green) Rates of EVT Process PH-Paramedic & MD Kass-Hout T, Lee J, Tataris K, Richards CT, Markul E, Weber J, et al. Prehospital Comprehensive Stroke Center vs Primary Stroke Center Triage in Patients With Suspected Large Vessel Occlusion Stroke. JAMA Neurol 2021. Medline
II Supportive (Green) Positive predictive value Process ED-Paramedic & MD Medoro I, Cone DC. An Analysis of EMS and ED Detection of Stroke. PEC 2017; 21(4):476-80. Medline
II Supportive (Green) #patients receiving tPA Process PH-Paramedic O'Brien W., Crimmins D., Donaldson W., Risti R., Clarke TA., Whyte S., Sturm J. FASTER (face, arm, speech, time, emergency response): Experience of central coast stroke services implementation of a pre-hospital notification system for expedient management of acute stroke. Journal of Clinical Neuroscience 2012; 19(2):241-5. Medline
II Supportive (Green) Time to definitive care Process PH-Paramedic Park HA., Ahn KO., Shin SD., Cha WC., Ro YS. The Effect of Emergency Medical Service Use and Inter-hospital Transfer on Prehospital Delay among Ischemic Stroke Patients: A Multicenter Observational Study. J Korean Med Sci 2016; 31(1):139-46. Medline
II Supportive (Green) Accurate triage Process PH-Paramedic Quain DA., Parsons MW., Loudfoot AR., Spratt NJ., Evans MK., Russell ML., Levi CR. Improving access to acute stroke therapies: A controlled trial of organised pre-hospital and emergency care. The Medical Journal of Australia 2008; 189(8):429-33. Medline
II Supportive (Green) Revascularization Process ED-Paramedic & MD Rinaldo L, Brinjikji W, McCutcheon BA, Bydon M, Cloft H, Kallmes DF, et al. Hospital transfer associated with increased mortality after endovascular revascularization for acute ischemic stroke. J of Neurointerventional Surgery 2017; 9(12):1166-72. Medline
II Supportive (Green) Time to treatment Process PH-Paramedic & MD Sangari A, Akhoundzadeh K, Vahedian M, Sharifipour E. Effect of pre-hospital notification on delays and neurological outcomes in acute ischemic stroke. Australas Emerg Care 2021. Medline
II Supportive (Green) Proportion of patients with acute stroke cared for at an acute stroke center Process PH-Paramedic Sanossian N., Liebeskind DS., Eckstein M., Starkman S., Stratton S., Pratt FD., et al. Routing Ambulances to Designated Centers Increases Access to Stroke Center Care and Enrollment in Prehospital Research. Stroke 2015; 46(10):2886-90. Medline
II Supportive (Green) In-hospital mortality Patient Silliman SL., Quinn B., Huggett V., Merino JG. Use of a field-to-stroke center helicopter transport program to extend thrombolytic therapy to rural patients. Stroke 2003; 34:729-33. Medline
II Neutral (Yellow) LVO prevalence Process ED-Paramedic & MD Dozois A, Hampton L, Kingston CW, Lambert G, Porcelli TJ, Sorenson D, et al. PLUMBER Study (Prevalence of Large Vessel Occlusion Strokes in Mecklenburg County Emergency Response). Stroke 2017; 48(12):3397-9. Medline
II Neutral (Yellow) Door-to-Needle time Process PH-Paramedic Sloane B, Bosson N, Sanossian N, Saver JL, Perez L, Gausche-Hill M. Is Door-to-Needle Time Reduced for Emergency Medical Services Transported Stroke Patients Routed Directly to the Computed Tomography Scanner on Emergency Department Arrival? J of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases 2019:104477. Medline
III Supportive (Green) Appropriate stroke destination rates Process PH-Paramedic Brown AT., Wei F., Culp WC., Brown G., Tyler R., Balamurugan A., et al. Emergency transport of stroke suspects in a rural state: opportunities for improvement. Am J Emerg Med 2016; 34(8):1640-4. Medline
III Supportive (Green) Door to needle time Process Other Flores A, Seró L, Otto C, Mernes R, Gonzalez S, Diaz-Escobar L, et al. Impact of prehospital stroke code in a public center in Paraguay: A pilot study. International J of Stroke 2019; 14(6):646-9. Medline
III Supportive (Green) Complications Patient ICU Mosley I., Nicol M., Donnan G., Patrick I., Kerr F., Dewey H. The impact of ambulance practice on acute stroke care: a Journal of Cerebral Circulation. Stroke 2007; 38(10):2765-70. Medline
III Neutral (Yellow) Time to balloon Process PH-Paramedic Bergrath S., Reich A., Rossaint R., Rortgen D., Gerber J., Fischermann H., et al. Feasibility of prehospital teleconsultation in acute stroke-a pilot study in clinical routine. PLoS One 2012; 7(5):e36796. Medline
III Neutral (Yellow) Use of acute stroke therapies Process Conroy MB., Rodriguez SU., Kimmel SE., Kasner SE. Helicopter transfer offers potential benefit to stroke patients. Stroke 1999; 30:2580-4. Medline
X Not Yet Graded (White) - Gunn J. Do methods of hospital pre-alerts influence the on-scene times for acute pre-hospital stroke patients? A retrospective observational study. Br Paramed J 2021; 6(2):19–25. Medline

ASA/Aspirin
Level Direction Primary Outcome Patient/Process Setting Reference
I Neutral (Yellow) Death from any cause during the 4-week treatment period Patient In-Patient CAST (Chinese Acute Stroke Trial) Collaborative Group: CAST. Randomised placebo-controlled trial of early aspirin use in 20 000 patients with acute ischaemic stroke. The Lancet 1997; 349:1641-9. Medline
I Neutral (Yellow) Death at 14days Patient ED-MD International Stroke Trial Collaborative Group. The International Stroke Trial (IST): A randomised trial of aspirin, subcutaneous heparin, both, or neither among 19 435 patients with acute ischaemic stroke. The Lancet 1997; 349:1569-81. Medline
III Supportive (Green) Modified Rankin Scale score of 1 or lower on discharge Patient ED-MD Su TH., Chan YL., Lee JD., Lee M., Lin LC., Wen YW., et al. To Load or Not to Load? Aspirin Loading in Acute Ischemic Stroke: A Study of Clinical Outcomes. J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis 2016; 25(10) 2439-47. Medline
III Neutral (Yellow) Morbidity Patient PH-Paramedic & MD Levri JM, Ocon A, Schunk P, Cunningham CW. Use of Acetylsalicylic Acid in the Prehospital Setting for Suspected Acute Ischemic Stroke. J of Special Operations Medicine 2017; 17(3):21-3. Medline

Blood Glucose Control
Level Direction Primary Outcome Patient/Process Setting Reference
II Neutral (Yellow) BGL reduction Process PH-Paramedic Nurmi J., Lindsberg PJ., Happola O., Klemetti E., Westerbacka J., Castren M. Strict glucose control after acute stroke can be provided in the prehospital setting. Acad Emerg Med 2011; 18(4):436-9. Medline
III Neutral (Yellow) Incidence of hypoglycemia Patient PH-Paramedic Abaranell NR. Is prehospital blood glucose measurement necessary in suspected CVA patients? Am J Emerg Med 2005; 23:823-7. Medline

Drip and ship
Level Direction Primary Outcome Patient/Process Setting Reference
II Supportive (Green) Safety and time course Process ED-MD Ishihara H, Oka F, Oku T, Shinoyama M, Suehiro E, Sugimoto K, et al. Safety and Time Course of Drip-and-Ship in Treatment of Acute Ischemic Stroke. J of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases 2017; 26(11):2477-81. Medline

HEMS
Level Direction Primary Outcome Patient/Process Setting Reference
II Supportive (Green) Thrombolytic Rate Process PH-Paramedic Reiner-Deitemyer V., Teuschl Y., Matz K., et al. Helicopter transport of stroke patients and its influence on thrombolysis rates: Data from the austrian stroke unit registry. Stroke 2011; 42(5):1295-300. Medline
II Supportive (Green) out of hospital time Process ED-Paramedic & MD Stowell A, Bobbia X, Cheret J, Genre Grandpierre R, Moreau A, Pommet S, et al. Out-of-hospital Times Using Helicopters Versus Ground Services for Emergency Patients. Air Med J 2019; 38(2):100-5. Medline
II Neutral (Yellow) Accurate triage Process In-Patient Adcock AK, Minardi J, Findley S, Daniels D, Large M, Power M. Value Utilization of Emerg Medical Services Air Transport in Acute Ischemic Stroke. J Emerg Med 2020. Medline
II Neutral (Yellow) Transfer velocity Process PH-Paramedic Kunte SA, Anderson D, Brown-Espaillat K, Froehler MT. Total Transfer Time for Ground vs. Air Transport for Interhospital and Scene Transfers of Acute Stroke Patients. J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis 2021; 30(6):105704. Medline
III Neutral (Yellow) Mortality rate. Patient PH-Paramedic & CCT Tal S, Mor S. The impact of helicopter emergency medical service on acute ischemic stroke patients: A systematic review. Am J Emerg Med 2021; 42:178-87. Medline

Hypertension Control
Level Direction Primary Outcome Patient/Process Setting Reference
II Neutral (Yellow) modified Ranking scale Patient PH-Paramedic Bath PM, Woodhouse LJ, Krishnan K, Appleton JP, Anderson CS, Berge E, et al. Prehospital Transdermal Glyceryl Trinitrate for Ultra-Acute Intracerebral Hemorrhage: Data From the RIGHT-2 Trial. Stroke 2019; 50(11):3064-71. Medline
II Neutral (Yellow) Functional recovery at day 7 Patient ED-MD Chamorro A., Vila N., Ascaso C., et al. Blood pressure and functional recovery in acute ischemic stroke. Stroke 1998; 29:1850-3. Medline
III Supportive (Green) Systolic BP Patient PH-Paramedic Ankolekar S., Fuller M., Cross I., Renton C., Cox P., Sprigg N., Bath PM. Feasibility of an ambulance-based stroke trial, and safety of glyceryl trinitrate in ultra-acute stroke: The rapid intervention with glyceryl trinitrate in hypertensive stroke trial (RIGHT, ISRCTN66434824). Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation 2013; 44(11):3120-8. Medline
III Supportive (Green) Feasibility Process PH-Paramedic Shaw L., Price C., McLure S., et al. Paramedic initiated lisinopril for acute stroke treatment (PIL-FAST): Results from the pilot randomised controlled trial. Emerg Med J 2014; 31(12):994-999. Medline
III Neutral (Yellow) Mortality rates, unfavorable outcomes, hematoma expansion, neurologic deterioration, severe hypotension, rate of renal adverse event Patient ED-MD Gong S, Lin C, Zhang D, Kong X, Chen J, Wang C, et al. Effects of Intensive Blood Pressure Reduction on Acute Intracerebral Hemorrhage: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. Scientific reports 2017; 7(1):10694. Medline
X Not Yet Graded (White) - Tunnage B, Woodhouse LJ, Dixon M, Anderson C, Ankolekar S, et al. Pre-hospital transdermal glyceryl trinitrate in patients with stroke mimics: data from the RIGHT-2 randomised-controlled ambulance trial. BMC Emerg Med 2022; 22(1):2. Medline

Hypotension Control
Level Direction Primary Outcome Patient/Process Setting Reference

Magnesium
Level Direction Primary Outcome Patient/Process Setting Reference
I Neutral (Yellow) Feasibility Process PH-Paramedic Saver JL., Kidwell C., Eckstein M., Starkman S. Prehospital neuroprotective therapy for acute stroke. Field administration of magnesium. Stroke 2004; 35:e10-8. Medline
I Neutral (Yellow) Target serum level Patient PH-Paramedic Shkirkova K., Starkman S., Sanossian N., Eckstein M., Stratton S., Pratt F., et al. Paramedic Initiation of Neuroprotective Agent Infusions Successful Achievement of Target Blood Levels and Attained Level Effect on Clinical Outcomes in the FAST-MAG Pivotal Trial (Field Administration of Stroke Therapy - Magnesium). Stroke 2017; 48(7) 1901-07. Medline
II Neutral (Yellow) Cardiac adverse events in stroke Patient PH-Paramedic Bechler K, Shkirkova K, Saver JL, Starkman S, Hamilton S, Liebeskind DS, et al. The Effect of Early Treatment with Intravenous Magnesium Sulfate on the Incidence of Cardiac Comorbidities in Hospitalized Stroke Patients. Cardiovascular Therapeutics 2020. Medline

Mobile Stroke unit
Level Direction Primary Outcome Patient/Process Setting Reference
I Supportive (Green) Accurate triage decision Process PH-Paramedic & MD Helwig SA, Ragoschke-Schumm A, Schwindling L, Kettner M, Roumia S, Kulikovski J, et al. Prehospital Stroke Management Optimized by Use of Clinical Scoring vs Mobile Stroke Unit for Triage of Patients With Stroke: A Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA neurology 2019. Medline
I Supportive (Green) Alarm to Decision Time Process PH-Paramedic Walter S., Kostopoulos P., Haass A., et al. Diagnosis and treatment of patients with stroke in a mobile stroke unit versus in hospital: A randomised controlled trial. Lancet Neurol 2012; 11(5):397-404. Medline
II Supportive (Green) Door to needle time. Process PH-Paramedic Andrew BY, Stack CM, Yang JP, Dodds JA. mStroke: "Mobile Stroke"-Improving Acute Stroke Care with Smartphone Technology. J of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases 2017; 26(7):1449-56. Medline
II Supportive (Green) Transfer times to intra arterial treatment Process Cerejo R., John S., Buletko AB., Taqui A., Itrat A., Organek N., et al. A Mobile Stroke Treatment Unit for Field Triage of Patients for Intraarterial Revascularization Therapy. J Neuroimaging 2015; 25(6):940-5. Medline
II Supportive (Green) Modified Rankin Scale score at 3 months Patient PH-Paramedic & MD Ebinger M, Siegerink B, Kunz A, Wendt M, Weber JE, Schwabauer E, et al. Association Between Dispatch of Mobile Stroke Units and Functional Outcomes Among Patients With Acute Ischemic Stroke in Berlin. JAMA 2021; 325(5):454-66. Medline
II Supportive (Green) Feasibility Process PH-Paramedic Itrat A., Taqui A., Cerejo R., Briggs F., Cho SM., Organek N., et al. Telemedicine in Prehospital Stroke Evaluation and Thrombolysis: Taking Stroke Treatment to the Doorstep. JAMA Neurol 2016; 73(2):162-8. Medline
II Supportive (Green) Modified Rankin Scale Patient PH-Paramedic & MD Nolte CH., Ebinger M., Scheitz JF., Kunz A., Erdur H., Geisler F., et al. Effects of Prehospital Thrombolysis in Stroke Patients With Prestroke Dependency. Stroke 2018; 49(3) 646-51. Medline
II Supportive (Green) Mobile Stroke Unit Patient Other Ramanathan RS, Wisco D, Vela-Duarte D, Zafar A, Taqui A, Winners S, et al. Pre-Hospital Diagnosis in Mobile Stroke Unit. J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis 2021; 30(7):105801. Medline
III Supportive (Green) Feasibility Process Bowry R., Parker S., Rajan SS., Yamal JM., Wu TC., Richardson L., et al. Benefits of Stroke Treatment Using a Mobile Stroke Unit Compared With Standard Management: The BEST-MSU Study Run-In Phase. Stroke 2015; 46(12) 3370-4. Medline
III Supportive (Green) Feasibility Process PH-Paramedic & MD Hov MR, Ryen A, Finsnes K, Storflor J, Lindner T, Gleditsch J, et al. Pre-hospital ct diagnosis of subarachnoid hemorrhage. Scand J T R Emerg Med 2017; 25(1):21. Medline
III Supportive (Green) Diagnostic accuracy of prehospital MD interpretation of CT Process Other Hov MR, Zakariassen E, Lindner T, Nome T, Bache KG, Røislien J, et al. Interpretation of Brain CT Scans in the Field by Critical Care Physicians in a Mobile Stroke Unit. J of neuroimaging 2018; 28(1):106-11. Medline
III Supportive (Green) Feasibility Process PH-MD & CCT Kettner M, Helwig SA, Ragoschke-Schumm A, Schwindling L, Roumia S, Keller I, et al. Prehospital Computed Tomography Angiography in Acute Stroke Management. Cerebrovasc Dis 2017; 44(5-6):338-43. Medline
III Supportive (Green) Treatment decision Process Kostopoulos P., Walter S., Haass A., et al. Mobile stroke unit for diagnosis-based triage of persons with suspected stroke. Neurology 2012; 78(23):1849-52. Medline
III Supportive (Green) Favourable outcome Patient PH-Paramedic & MD Lorenz MW, Lauer A, Foerch C. Quantifying the Benefit of Prehospital Rapid Treatment in Acute Stroke: Benchmark for Future Innovative Clinical Trials. Stroke 2015 Nov;46(11) 3168-76. Medline
III Neutral (Yellow) Reduction of patient-contact to diagnosis & stroke reperfusion time. Process PH-MD & CCT Kate MP, Jeerakathil T, Buck BH, Khan K, Nomani AZ, Butt A, et al. Pre-hospital triage of suspected acute stroke patients in a mobile stroke unit in the rural Alberta. Sci Rep 2021; 11(1):4988. Medline
III Neutral (Yellow) Time to Dx & Tx Process PH-Paramedic & MD Larsen K, Bache KG, Franer E, Tveit LH, Hov MR, Lund CG, et al. Pre-hospital thrombolysis of ischemic stroke in the emergency service system-A case report from the Treat-NASPP trial. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 2019; 63(3):410-3. Medline

Oxygen
Level Direction Primary Outcome Patient/Process Setting Reference

Stroke Diagnosis Scales (any)
Level Direction Primary Outcome Patient/Process Setting Reference
I Supportive (Green) Diagnostic accuracy Patient ED-Paramedic & MD Han F, Zuo C, Zheng G. A systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of recognition of stroke in the Emerg department (ROSIER) scale. BMC Neurology 2020; 20(1). Medline
II Supportive (Green) Stroke Diagnosis Scales Process Other Alijanpour S, Mostafazdeh-Bora M, Ahmadi Ahangar A. Different Stroke Scales; Which Scale or Scales Should Be Used? Caspian J Intern Med 2021; 12(1):1-21. Medline
II Supportive (Green) Predictive value for LVO Patient Other Almqvist T, Berglund A, Sjöstrand C, Eriksson E, Mazya MV. Prehospital Triage Accuracy in Patients With Stroke Symptoms Assessed Within 6 to 24 Hours or With an Unknown Time of Onset. Stroke 2021; 52(4):1441-5. Medline
II Supportive (Green) Sensitivity/specificity Process PH-Paramedic Araki H, Uchida K, Yoshimura S, Kurisu K, Shime N, Sakamoto S, et al. Effect of region-wide use of prehospital stroke triage scale on management of patients with acute stroke. J Neurointerv Surg 2021. Medline
II Supportive (Green) Predictive value Process PH-Paramedic Bray JE., Coughlan K., Barger B., Bladin C. Paramedic diagnosis of stroke: Examining long-term use of the melbourne ambulance stroke screen (MASS) in the field. Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation 2010; 41(7):1363-6. Medline
II Supportive (Green) Predictive value Process PH-Paramedic Bray JE., Martin J., Cooper G., Barger B., Bernard S., Bladin C. Paramedic identification of stroke: Community validation of the melbourne ambulance stroke screen. Cerebrovascular Diseases (Basel, Switzerland) 2005; 20(1): 28-33. Medline
II Supportive (Green) Validity for prediction of LVO Process ED-Paramedic & MD Chiu YC, Hsieh MJ, Lin YH, Tang SC, Sun JT, Chiang WC, et al. External validation of prehospital stroke scales for emergent large vessel occlusion. Am J Emerg Med 2021; 41:35-9. Medline
II Supportive (Green) Predictive value Process PH-Paramedic De Luca A, Mariani M, Riccardi MT, Damiani G. The role of the Cincinnati Prehospital Stroke Scale in the emergency department: evidence from a systematic review and meta-analysis. OAEM 2019; 11:147-59. Medline
II Supportive (Green) Sensitivity and specificity Patient PH-Paramedic & MD Dowbiggin PL, Inginger AE, Purick GT, Swanson DR, Asimos A, Rhoten JB, et al. Prehospital Evaluation of the FAST-ED as a Secondary Stroke Screen to Identify Large Vessel Occlusion Strokes. Prehosp Emerg Care 2021:1–8. Medline
II Supportive (Green) Clinical diagnosis Process PH-Paramedic Duvekot MHC, Venema E, Rozeman AD, Moudrous W, Vermeij FH, Biekart M, et al. Comparison of eight prehospital stroke scales to detect intracranial large-vessel occlusion in suspected stroke (PRESTO): a prospective observational study. Lancet Neurol 2021; 20(3):213-21. Medline
II Supportive (Green) Predicative value Process PH-Paramedic English SW, Rabinstein AA, Mandrekar J, Klaas JP. Rethinking Prehospital Stroke Notification: Assessing Utility of Emergency Medical Services Impression and Cincinnati Prehospital Stroke Scale. J of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases 2018; 27(4):919-25. Medline
II Supportive (Green) Correlation with NIHSS Process PH-Paramedic Iguchi Y., Kimura K., Watanabe M., Shibazaki K., Aoki J. Utility of the kurashiki prehospital stroke scale for hyperacute stroke. Cerebrovasc Dis 2011; 31(1):51-6. Medline
II Supportive (Green) Predictive value for LVO Patient Other Johannes B, Habib P, Schürmann K, Nikoubashman O, Wiesmann M, Schulz JB, et al. Gaze Deviation and Paresis Score (GPS) Sufficiently Predicts Emergent Large Vessel Occluding Strokes. J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis 2021; 30(3):105518. Medline
II Supportive (Green) Predictive value for LVO Process ED-MD Keenan KJ, Smith WS. The Speech Arm Vision Eyes (SAVE) scale predicts large vessel occlusion stroke as well as more complicated scales. J of Neurointerventional Surgery 2019; 11(7):659-63 Medline
II Supportive (Green) Predictive value Process PH-Paramedic Kidwell CS., Saver JL., Schubert GB., Eckstein M., Starkman S. Design and retrospective analysis of the Los Angeles Prehospital Stroke Screen (LAPSS). Prehosp Emerg Care 1998; 2:267-73. Medline
II Supportive (Green) Predictive value Process PH-Paramedic Kidwell CS., Starkman S., Eckstein M., Weems K., Saver JL. Identifying stroke in the field. Prospective validation of the LA Prehospital Stroke Screen. Stroke 2000; 31:71-6. Medline
II Supportive (Green) Predictive value Process PH-Paramedic Kim JT., Chung PW., Starkman S., Sanossian N., Stratton SJ., Eckstein M., et al. Field Validation of the Los Angeles Motor Scale as a Tool for Paramedic Assessment of Stroke Severity. Stroke 2017; 48(2):298-306. Medline
II Supportive (Green) Predictive value Process PH-Paramedic Kothari R., Hall K., Brott T., Broderick J. Early stroke recognition: Developing an out-of-hospital NIH Stroke Scale. Acad Emerg Med 1997; 4(10):986-90. Medline
II Supportive (Green) Correlation of diagnosis between EMS providers and physicians Process PH-Paramedic Kothari RU., Pancioli A., Lui T., Brott T., Broderick J. Cincinnati prehospital stroke scale: Reproducibility and validity. Ann Emerg Med 1999; 33:373-8. Medline
II Supportive (Green) Predictive value Process ED-MD Kuroda R, Nakada T, Ojima T, Serizawa M, Imai N, Yagi N, et al. The TriAGe+ Score for Vertigo or Dizziness: A Diagnostic Model for Stroke in the Emergency Department. J of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases 2017; 26(5):1144-53. Medline
II Supportive (Green) Predictive value for LVO Process PH-Paramedic Lima FO., Silva GS., Furie KL., Frankel MR., Lev MH., Camargo EC., et al. Field Assessment Stroke Triage for Emergency Destination: A Simple and Accurate Prehospital Scale to Detect Large Vessel Occlusion Strokes. Stroke 2016; 47(8)1997-2002. Medline
II Supportive (Green) Predictive value Process PH-Paramedic Llanes JN., et al. The LA Motor Scale: A new measure to characterize stroke severity in the field. Prehosp Emerg Care 2004; 8:46-50. Medline
II Supportive (Green) Predictive value Process Other Maddali A, Razack FA, Cattamanchi S, Ramakrishnan TV. Validation of the Cincinnati Prehospital Stroke Scale. J of Emergencies, Trauma, and Shock 2018; 11(2):111-4. Medline
II Supportive (Green) Predictive value Process PH-Paramedic McMullan JT, Katz B, Broderick J, Schmit P, Sucharew H, Adeoye O. Prospective Prehospital Evaluation of the Cincinnati Stroke Triage Assessment Tool. PEC 2017; 21(4):481-8. Medline
II Supportive (Green) Predictive value Process PH-Paramedic Mingfeng H., Zhixin W., Qihong G., Lianda L., Yanbin Y., Jinfang F. Validation of the use of the ROSIER scale in prehospital assessment of stroke. Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology 2012; 15(3):191-5. Medline
II Supportive (Green) Predictive value Process PH-Paramedic Mould-Millman NK, Meese H, Alattas I, Ido M, Yi I, Oyewumi T, et al. Accuracy of Prehospital Identification of Stroke in a Large Stroke Belt Municipality. PEC 2018; 22(6):734-42. Medline
II Supportive (Green) Predictive value Process Nazliel B., Starkman S., Liebeskind D., et al. A Brief Prehospital Stroke Severity Scale Identifies Ischemic Stroke Patients Harboring Persisting Large Arterial Occlusions. Stroke 2007; 39(8):2264-7. Medline
II Supportive (Green) Decreased time to EVT Process PH-Paramedic Nehme A, Deschaintre Y, Labrie M, Daneault N, Odier C, Poppe AY, et al. Cincinnati Prehospital Stroke Scale for EMS Redirection of Large Vessel Occlusion Stroke. The Canadian J of Neurological Sciences 2019; 46(6):684-90. Medline
II Supportive (Green) Predictive value Process PH-Paramedic Nguyen TTM, van den Wijngaard IR, Bosch J, van Belle E, van Zwet EW, Dofferhoff-Vermeulen T, et al. Comparison of Prehospital Scales for Predicting Large Anterior Vessel Occlusion in the Ambulance Setting. JAMA Neurol 2021; 78(2):157-64. Medline
II Supportive (Green) Predictive value for LVO Process ED-Paramedic & MD Noorian AR, Sanossian N, Shkirkova K, Liebeskind DS, Eckstein M, Stratton SJ, et al. Los Angeles Motor Scale to Identify Large Vessel Occlusion: Prehospital Validation and Comparison With Other Screens. Stroke 2018; 49(3):565-72. Medline
II Supportive (Green) Predictive value Process PH-Paramedic Ollikainen JP, Janhunen HV, Tynkkynen JA, Mattila KM, Hälinen MM, Oksala NK, et al. The Finnish Prehospital Stroke Scale Detects Thrombectomy and Thrombolysis Candidates-A Propensity Score-Matched Study. J of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases 2018; 27(3):771-7. Medline
II Supportive (Green) Predicative value Process PH-Paramedic Pickham D, Valdez A, Demeestere J, Lemmens R, Diaz L, Hopper S, et al. Prognostic Value of BEFAST vs. FAST to Identify Stroke in a Prehospital Setting. PEC 2018; 23(2):195-200. Medline
II Supportive (Green) Predictive value for LVO Process PH-Paramedic Richards CT, Huebinger R, Tataris KL, Weber JM, Eggers L, Markul E, et al. Cincinnati Prehospital Stroke Scale Can Identify Large Vessel Occlusion Stroke. PEC 2018; 22(3):312-8. Medline
II Supportive (Green) Predicative value Process PH-Paramedic Suzuki K, Nakajima N, Kunimoto K, Hatake S, Sakamoto Y, Hokama H, et al. Emergent Large Vessel Occlusion Screen Is an Ideal Prehospital Scale to Avoid Missing Endovascular Therapy in Acute Stroke. Stroke 2018; 49(9):2096-101. Medline
II Supportive (Green) Predictive value for LVO Process ED-Paramedic & MD Taqi MA, Sodhi A, Suriya SS, Quadri SA, Farooqui M, Salvucci AA, et al. Design, Application and Infield Validation of a Pre-Hospital Emergent Large Vessel Occlusion Screening Tool: Ventura Emergent Large Vessel Occlusion Score. J of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases 2019; 28(3):728-34. Medline
II Supportive (Green) Predictive value. Patient PH-Paramedic Uchida K, Yoshimura S, Sakakibara F, Kinjo N, Araki H, Saito S, et al. Simplified Prehospital Prediction Rule to Estimate the Likelihood of 4 Types of Stroke: The 7-Item Japan Urgent Stroke Triage (JUST-7) Score. Prehosp Emerg Care 2021; 25(4):465–74. Medline
II Supportive (Green) Predictive value Process PH-Paramedic & MD Uchida K., Yoshimura S., Hiyama N., Oki Y., Matsumoto T., Tokuda R., et al. Clinical Prediction Rules to Classify Types of Stroke at Prehospital Stage. Stroke 2018; 49(8) 1820-7. Medline
II Supportive (Green) Predictive value Process PH-Paramedic & MD Vidale S, Agostoni E. Prehospital stroke scales and large vessel occlusion: A systematic review. Acta Neurol Scand 2018; 138(1):24-31. Medline
II Supportive (Green) Predictive value for TPA use Process ED-MD You JS., Chung SP., Chung HS., Lee HS., Park JW., Kim HJ., Lee HS. Predictive value of the cincinnati prehospital stroke scale for identifying thrombolytic candidates in acute ischemic stroke. The American Journal of Emergency Medicine 2013; 31(12):1699-1702. Medline
II Supportive (Green) Predictive value Process PH-Paramedic Zhao H, Pesavento L, Coote S, Rodrigues E, Salvaris P, Smith K, et al. Ambulance Clinical Triage for Acute Stroke Treatment: Paramedic Triage Algorithm for Large Vessel Occlusion. Stroke 2018; 49(4):945-51. Medline
II Neutral (Yellow) Predictive value Process PH-Paramedic Berglund A., Svensson L., Wahlgren N., von Euler M., HASTA collaborators. Face arm speech time test use in the prehospital setting, better in the ambulance than in the emergency medical communication center. Cerebrovasc Dis 2014; 37(3):212-6. Medline
II Neutral (Yellow) Predictive value Process PH-Paramedic Frendl DM., Strauss DG., Underhill BK., Goldstein LB. Lack of impact of paramedic training and use of the cincinnati prehospital stroke scale on stroke patient identification and on-scene time. Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation 2009; 40(3):754-6. Medline
II Neutral (Yellow) Predictive value Process PH-Paramedic Gropen TI., Gokaldas R., Poleshuck R., et al. Factors related to the sensitivity of emergency medical service impression of stroke. Prehosp Emerg Care 2014; 18(3):387-92. Medline
II Neutral (Yellow) Predictive value for LVO Process PH-Paramedic Krebs W, Sharkey-Toppen TP, Cheek F, Cortez E, Larrimore A, Keseg D, et al. Prehospital Stroke Assessment for Large Vessel Occlusions: A Systematic Review. PEC 2017; 22(2):180-8. Medline
II Neutral (Yellow) Predictive value Process ED-MD Si X, Ruan J, Li L, Lu S, Huang H, Xia W, et al. Modified Prehospital Acute Stroke Severity (mPASS) Scale to Predict Emergent Large Arterial Occlusion. Biomed Res Int 2021; 2021:5568696. Medline
II Neutral (Yellow) Predictive value Process PH-Paramedic Studnek JR., Asimos A., Dodds J., Swanson D. (2013). Assessing the validity of the cincinnati prehospital stroke scale and the medic prehospital assessment for code stroke in an urban emergency medical services agency. Prehosp Emerg Care 2013; 17(3):348-53. Medline
II Neutral (Yellow) Predictive value for ischemic stroke Process PH-Paramedic Suzuki J, Nakai N, Kondo N, Tsuji H, Inagaki R, Furukawa S, et al. Ten-Year Evaluation of the TOYOTA Prehospital Stroke Scale for Tissue Plasminogen Activator Intravenous Therapy in the Real World. Cerebrovasc Dis 2018; 46(3-4):184-92. Medline
III Supportive (Green) Predicative value Process ED-MD Carrera D, Gorchs M, Querol M, Abilleira S, Ribó M, Millán M, et al. Revalidation of the RACE scale after its regional implementation in Catalonia: a triage tool for large vessel occlusion. J of Neurointerventional Surgery 2019; 11(8):751-6. Medline
III Supportive (Green) Predictive value Process PH-Paramedic Chenkin J., et al. Predictive value of the Ontario prehospital stroke scale screening tool for the identification of patients with acute stroke. Prehosp Emerg Care 2009; 13:153-9. Medline
III Supportive (Green) Predictive value for LVO Process PH-Paramedic Demeestere J, Garcia-Esperon C, Lin L, Bivard A, Ang T, Smoll NR, et al. Validation of the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale-8 to Detect Large Vessel Occlusion in Ischemic Stroke. J of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases 2017; 26(7):1419-26. Medline
III Supportive (Green) Predictive value for thrombolytic therapy Process PH-Paramedic Hasegawa Y., Sasaki N., Yamada K., Ono H., Kumai J., Tsumura K., Shigeno T. Prediction of thrombolytic therapy after stroke-bypass transportation: The maria prehospital stroke scale score. Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases : The Official Journal of National Stroke Association 2013; 22(4):514-9. Medline
III Supportive (Green) Accuracy of triage decision Process PH-Paramedic & MD Helwig SA, Ragoschke-Schumm A, Schwindling L, Kettner M, Roumia S, Kulikovski J, et al. Prehospital Stroke Management Optimized by Use of Clinical Scoring vs Mobile Stroke Unit for Triage of Patients With Stroke: A Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA neurology 2019. Medline
III Supportive (Green) Optimal trip destination Process SIM Schlemm L, Ebinger M, Nolte CH, Endres M. Impact of Prehospital Triage Scales to Detect Large Vessel Occlusion on Resource Utilization and Time to Treatment. Stroke 2018; 49(2):439-46. Medline
III Supportive (Green) Predictive value for LVO Process PH-Paramedic Václaví¬k D, Bar M, Klečka L, Holeš D, Ĉábal M, Mikulí¬k R. Prehospital stroke scale (FAST PLUS Test) predicts patients with intracranial large vessel occlusion. Brain and Behavior 2018; 8(9):e01087. Medline
III Supportive (Green) Feasibility Process PH-Paramedic WD M, Spokoyny I, JT F, Lima B, MD C, MJR N, Niknam K, IP B, MA K, Govindarajan P. Prehospital Identification of Large Vessel Occlusions Using Modified National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale: A Pilot Study. Front Neurol 2021; 12:643356. Medline
III Supportive (Green) Predictive value Process Other Zhelev Z, Walker G, Henschke N, Fridhandler J, Yip S. Prehospital stroke scales as screening tools for early identification of stroke and transient ischemic attack. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2019; 4:CD011427. Medline
III Neutral (Yellow) Predictive value for LVO Process PH-Paramedic Dickson RL., Crowe RP., Patrick C., Crocker K., Aiken M., Adams A., et al. Performance of the RACE Score for the Prehospital Identification of Large Vessel Occlusion Stroke in a Suburban/Rural EMS Service. PEC 2019 1-7. Medline
III Neutral (Yellow) Predicative value Process ED-Paramedic & MD Purrucker JC, Härtig F, Richter H, Engelbrecht A, Hartmann J, Auer J, et al. Design and validation of a clinical scale for prehospital stroke recognition, severity grading and prediction of large vessel occlusion: the shortened NIH Stroke Scale for emergency medical services. BMJ Open 2017; 7(9):e016893. Medline
III Neutral (Yellow) Predictive value Process SIM Schlemm L, Schlemm E. Clinical benefit of improved Prehospital stroke scales to detect stroke patients with large vessel occlusions: results from a conditional probabilistic model. BMC Neurology 2018; 18(1):16. Medline
X Not Yet Graded (White) - Barrett KM., Pizzi MA., Kesari V., TerKonda SP., Mauricio EA., Silvers SM., et al. Ambulance-based assessment of NIH Stroke Scale with telemedicine: A feasibility pilot study. J Telemed Telecare 2017; 23(4):476-83. Medline
X Not Yet Graded (White) - Daly M, Cummings C, Kittell M, Dubuque A, Plante L, Linares G, et al. Validation of field assessment stroke triage for emergency destination for prehospital use in a rural EMS system. Am J Emerg Med 2021; 50:178–82. Medline
X Not Yet Graded (White) - Sepponen R, Saviluoto A, Jäntti H, Harve-Rytsälä H, Lääperi M, Nurmi J. Validation of Score to Detect Intracranial Lesions in Unconscious Patients in Prehospital Setting. J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis 2022; 31(4):106319. Medline

Stroke scale: CPSS
Level Direction Primary Outcome Patient/Process Setting Reference
II Supportive (Green) Predictive value Process PH-Paramedic Bray JE., Coughlan K., Barger B., Bladin C. Paramedic diagnosis of stroke: Examining long-term use of the melbourne ambulance stroke screen (MASS) in the field. Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation 2010; 41(7):1363-6. Medline
II Supportive (Green) Predictive value Process PH-Paramedic Bray JE., Martin J., Cooper G., Barger B., Bernard S., Bladin C. Paramedic identification of stroke: Community validation of the melbourne ambulance stroke screen. Cerebrovascular Diseases (Basel, Switzerland) 2005; 20(1): 28-33. Medline
II Supportive (Green) Validity for LVO prediction Process ED-Paramedic & MD Chiu YC, Hsieh MJ, Lin YH, Tang SC, Sun JT, Chiang WC, et al. External validation of prehospital stroke scales for emergent large vessel occlusion. Am J Emerg Med 2021; 41:35-9. Medline
II Supportive (Green) Predictive value Process PH-Paramedic De Luca A, Mariani M, Riccardi MT, Damiani G. The role of the Cincinnati Prehospital Stroke Scale in the emergency department: evidence from a systematic review and meta-analysis. OAEM 2019; 11:147-59. Medline
II Supportive (Green) Detection of LVO Process PH-Paramedic Duvekot MHC, Venema E, Rozeman AD, Moudrous W, Vermeij FH, Biekart M, et al. Comparison of eight prehospital stroke scales to detect intracranial large-vessel occlusion in suspected stroke (PRESTO): a prospective observational study. Lancet Neurol 2021; 20(3):213-21. Medline
II Supportive (Green) Predicative value Process PH-Paramedic English SW, Rabinstein AA, Mandrekar J, Klaas JP. Rethinking Prehospital Stroke Notification: Assessing Utility of Emergency Medical Services Impression and Cincinnati Prehospital Stroke Scale. J of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases 2018; 27(4):919-25. Medline
II Supportive (Green) Alarm-to-hospital time or Pre-hospital time Process PH-Paramedic Heemskerk JL, Ricardo A, Domingo RA, Tawk RG, Vivas-Buitrago TG, Huang JF, Rogers A, et al. Time Is Brain: Prehospital Emergency Medical Services Response Times for Suspected Stroke and Effects of Prehospital Interventions. Mayo Clin Proc 2021; 96(6):1446–57. Medline
II Supportive (Green) Correlation of diagnosis between EMS providers and physicians Process PH-Paramedic Kothari RU., Pancioli A., Lui T., Brott T., Broderick J. Cincinnati prehospital stroke scale: Reproducibility and validity. Ann Emerg Med 1999; 33:373-8. Medline
II Supportive (Green) Predictive value Process PH-Paramedic Krebs W, Sharkey-Toppen TP, Cheek F, Cortez E, Larrimore A, Keseg D, et al. Prehospital Stroke Assessment for Large Vessel Occlusions: A Systematic Review. PEC 2017; 22(2):180-8. Medline
II Supportive (Green) Predictive value for LVO Process PH-Paramedic Lima FO., Silva GS., Furie KL., Frankel MR., Lev MH., Camargo EC., et al. Field Assessment Stroke Triage for Emergency Destination: A Simple and Accurate Prehospital Scale to Detect Large Vessel Occlusion Strokes. Stroke 2016; 47(8)1997-2002. Medline
II Supportive (Green) Predictive value Process Other Maddali A, Razack FA, Cattamanchi S, Ramakrishnan TV. Validation of the Cincinnati Prehospital Stroke Scale. J of Emergencies, Trauma, and Shock 2018; 11(2):111-4. Medline
II Supportive (Green) Predictive value Process PH-Paramedic McMullan JT, Katz B, Broderick J, Schmit P, Sucharew H, Adeoye O. Prospective Prehospital Evaluation of the Cincinnati Stroke Triage Assessment Tool. PEC 2017; 21(4):481-8. Medline
II Supportive (Green) Predictive value Process PH-Paramedic Mingfeng H., Zhixin W., Qihong G., Lianda L., Yanbin Y., Jinfang F. Validation of the use of the ROSIER scale in prehospital assessment of stroke. Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology 2012; 15(3):191-5. Medline
II Supportive (Green) Decreased time to EVT Process PH-Paramedic Nehme A, Deschaintre Y, Labrie M, Daneault N, Odier C, Poppe AY, et al. Cincinnati Prehospital Stroke Scale for EMS Redirection of Large Vessel Occlusion Stroke. The Canadian J of Neurological Sciences 2019; 46(6):684-90. Medline
II Supportive (Green) Predictive value Process PH-Paramedic Richards CT, Huebinger R, Tataris KL, Weber JM, Eggers L, Markul E, et al. Cincinnati Prehospital Stroke Scale Can Identify Large Vessel Occlusion Stroke. PEC 2018; 22(3):312-8. Medline
II Supportive (Green) Predictive value Process PH-Paramedic Studnek JR., Asimos A., Dodds J., Swanson D. (2013). Assessing the validity of the cincinnati prehospital stroke scale and the medic prehospital assessment for code stroke in an urban emergency medical services agency. Prehosp Emerg Care 2013; 17(3):348-53. Medline
II Supportive (Green) Predictive value Process PH-Paramedic Vidale S, Agostoni E. Prehospital stroke scales and large vessel occlusion: A systematic review. Acta Neurol Scand 2018; 138(1):24-31. Medline
II Supportive (Green) Predictive value for TPA use Process ED-MD You JS., Chung SP., Chung HS., Lee HS., Park JW., Kim HJ., Lee HS. Predictive value of the cincinnati prehospital stroke scale for identifying thrombolytic candidates in acute ischemic stroke. The American Journal of Emergency Medicine 2013; 31(12):1699-1702. Medline
II Neutral (Yellow) Predictive value Process PH-Paramedic Alijanpour S, Mostafazdeh-Bora M, Ahmadi Ahangar A. Different Stroke Scales; Which Scale or Scales Should Be Used? Caspian J Intern Med 2021; 12(1):1-21. Medline
II Neutral (Yellow) Predictive value Process PH-Paramedic Frendl DM., Strauss DG., Underhill BK., Goldstein LB. Lack of impact of paramedic training and use of the cincinnati prehospital stroke scale on stroke patient identification and on-scene time. Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation 2009; 40(3):754-6. Medline
III Supportive (Green) Predictive value Process PH-Paramedic Zhelev Z, Walker G, Henschke N, Fridhandler J, Yip S. Prehospital stroke scales as screening tools for early identification of stroke and transient ischemic attack. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2019; 4:CD011427. Medline

Stroke scale: LAMS
Level Direction Primary Outcome Patient/Process Setting Reference
II Supportive (Green) Performance (AUROC) of prehospital stroke scales for LVO Process Other Duvekot MHC, Venema E, Rozeman AD, Moudrous W, Vermeij FH, Biekart M, et al. Comparison of eight prehospital stroke scales to detect intracranial large-vessel occlusion in suspected stroke (PRESTO): a prospective observational study. Lancet Neurol 2021; 20(3):213-21. Medline
II Supportive (Green) Predictive validity Process PH-Paramedic Kim JT., Chung PW., Starkman S., Sanossian N., Stratton SJ., Eckstein M., et al. Field Validation of the Los Angeles Motor Scale as a Tool for Paramedic Assessment of Stroke Severity. Stroke 2017; 48(2):298-306. Medline
II Supportive (Green) Predictive value Process PH-Paramedic Krebs W, Sharkey-Toppen TP, Cheek F, Cortez E, Larrimore A, Keseg D, et al. Prehospital Stroke Assessment for Large Vessel Occlusions: A Systematic Review. PEC 2017; 22(2):180-8. Medline
II Supportive (Green) Predictive value Process PH-Paramedic Llanes JN., et al. The LA Motor Scale: A new measure to characterize stroke severity in the field. Prehosp Emerg Care 2004; 8:46-50. Medline
II Supportive (Green) Predictive value Process ED-MD Nazliel B., Starkman S., Liebeskind D., et al. A Brief Prehospital Stroke Severity Scale Identifies Ischemic Stroke Patients Harboring Persisting Large Arterial Occlusions. Stroke 2007; 39(8):2264-7. Medline
II Supportive (Green) Predictive value Process PH-Paramedic Nguyen TTM, van den Wijngaard IR, Bosch J, van Belle E, van Zwet EW, Dofferhoff-Vermeulen T, et al. Comparison of Prehospital Scales for Predicting Large Anterior Vessel Occlusion in the Ambulance Setting. JAMA Neurol 2021; 78(2):157-64. Medline
II Supportive (Green) Predictive value Process PH-Paramedic Noorian AR, Sanossian N, Shkirkova K, Liebeskind DS, Eckstein M, Stratton SJ, et al. Los Angeles Motor Scale to Identify Large Vessel Occlusion: Prehospital Validation and Comparison With Other Screens. Stroke 2018; 49(3):565-72. Medline
II Supportive (Green) Predictive value Process PH-Paramedic Vidale S, Agostoni E. Prehospital stroke scales and large vessel occlusion: A systematic review. Acta Neurol Scand 2018; 138(1):24-31. Medline
II Supportive (Green) Predictive value Process PH-Paramedic Zhao H, Pesavento L, Coote S, Rodrigues E, Salvaris P, Smith K, et al. Ambulance Clinical Triage for Acute Stroke Treatment: Paramedic Triage Algorithm for Large Vessel Occlusion. Stroke 2018; 49(4):945-51. Medline
III Supportive (Green) Accuracy of triage decision Process PH-Paramedic Helwig SA, Ragoschke-Schumm A, Schwindling L, Kettner M, Roumia S, Kulikovski J, et al. Prehospital Stroke Management Optimized by Use of Clinical Scoring vs Mobile Stroke Unit for Triage of Patients With Stroke: A Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA neurology 2019. Medline
III Supportive (Green) Predictive value Process PH-Paramedic Zhelev Z, Walker G, Henschke N, Fridhandler J, Yip S. Prehospital stroke scales as screening tools for early identification of stroke and transient ischemic attack. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2019; 4:CD011427. Medline

Stroke scale: RACE
Level Direction Primary Outcome Patient/Process Setting Reference
II Supportive (Green) Predictive value Process Other Alijanpour S, Mostafazdeh-Bora M, Ahmadi Ahangar A. Different Stroke Scales; Which Scale or Scales Should Be Used? Caspian J Intern Med 2021; 12(1):1-21. Medline
II Supportive (Green) Validity for LVO prediction Process ED-Paramedic & MD Chiu YC, Hsieh MJ, Lin YH, Tang SC, Sun JT, Chiang WC, et al. External validation of prehospital stroke scales for emergent large vessel occlusion. Am J Emerg Med 2021; 41:35-9. Medline
II Supportive (Green) Predictive value Process PH-Paramedic Duvekot MHC, Venema E, Rozeman AD, Moudrous W, Vermeij FH, Biekart M, et al. Comparison of eight prehospital stroke scales to detect intracranial large-vessel occlusion in suspected stroke (PRESTO): a prospective observational study. Lancet Neurol 2021; 20(3):213-21. Medline
II Supportive (Green) Predictive value Process PH-Paramedic Krebs W, Sharkey-Toppen TP, Cheek F, Cortez E, Larrimore A, Keseg D, et al. Prehospital Stroke Assessment for Large Vessel Occlusions: A Systematic Review. PEC 2017; 22(2):180-8. Medline
II Supportive (Green) Predictive value Process PH-Paramedic Lima FO., Silva GS., Furie KL., Frankel MR., Lev MH., Camargo EC., et al. Field Assessment Stroke Triage for Emergency Destination: A Simple and Accurate Prehospital Scale to Detect Large Vessel Occlusion Strokes. Stroke 2016; 47(8)1997-2002. Medline
II Supportive (Green) Predictive value Process PH-Paramedic Nguyen TTM, van den Wijngaard IR, Bosch J, van Belle E, van Zwet EW, Dofferhoff-Vermeulen T, et al. Comparison of Prehospital Scales for Predicting Large Anterior Vessel Occlusion in the Ambulance Setting. JAMA Neurol 2021; 78(2):157-64. Medline
II Supportive (Green) Predictive value Process PH-Paramedic Vidale S, Agostoni E. Prehospital stroke scales and large vessel occlusion: A systematic review. Acta Neurol Scand 2018; 138(1):24-31. Medline
II Supportive (Green) Predictive value Process PH-Paramedic Zhao H, Pesavento L, Coote S, Rodrigues E, Salvaris P, Smith K, et al. Ambulance Clinical Triage for Acute Stroke Treatment: Paramedic Triage Algorithm for Large Vessel Occlusion. Stroke 2018; 49(4):945-51. Medline
III Supportive (Green) Predictive value Process PH-Paramedic Carrera D, Gorchs M, Querol M, Abilleira S, Ribó M, Millán M, et al. Revalidation of the RACE scale after its regional implementation in Catalonia: a triage tool for large vessel occlusion. J of Neurointerventional Surgery 2019; 11(8):751-6. Medline
III Supportive (Green) Predictive value Process SIM Schlemm L, Ebinger M, Nolte CH, Endres M. Impact of Prehospital Triage Scales to Detect Large Vessel Occlusion on Resource Utilization and Time to Treatment. Stroke 2018; 49(2):439-46. Medline
III Supportive (Green) Predictive value Process PH-Paramedic Zhelev Z, Walker G, Henschke N, Fridhandler J, Yip S. Prehospital stroke scales as screening tools for early identification of stroke and transient ischemic attack. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2019; 4:CD011427. Medline
III Neutral (Yellow) Predictive value Process PH-Paramedic Dickson RL., Crowe RP., Patrick C., Crocker K., Aiken M., Adams A., et al. Performance of the RACE Score for the Prehospital Identification of Large Vessel Occlusion Stroke in a Suburban/Rural EMS Service. PEC 2019 1-7. Medline
III Neutral (Yellow) Predictive value Process SIM Schlemm L, Schlemm E. Clinical benefit of improved Prehospital stroke scales to detect stroke patients with large vessel occlusions: results from a conditional probabilistic model. BMC Neurology 2018; 18(1):16. Medline

TIA Score
Level Direction Primary Outcome Patient/Process Setting Reference
III Supportive (Green) Subsequent stroke within 7 days Patient ED-MD Perry JJ, Sivilotti MLA, Émond M, Stiell IG, Stotts G, Lee J, et al. Prospective validation of Canadian TIA Score and comparison with ABCD2 and ABCD2i for subsequent stroke risk after transient ischaemic attack: Multicentre prospective cohort study. BMJ 2021; 372:n49. Medline


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