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Non-Transport/Alternative Pathways

Date Last Search Run: Jun 11, 2024
Table last updated: Jun 22, 2024
Data last added: Jun 27, 2024

1 (strong evidence exists)        
2 (fair evidence exists)    
3 (weak evidence exists)    


Alternative Pathways
Level Direction Primary Outcome Patient/Process Setting Reference
III Neutral (Yellow) Feasibility Process PH-Paramedic Hutchinson A, Allgar V, Cohen J, Currow DC, Griffin S, Hart S, Hird K, Hodge A, Mason S, Northgraves M, Reeve J, Swan F, Johnson MJ. Mixed-methods feasibility cluster randomised controlled trial of a paramedic-administered breathlessness management intervention for acute-on-chronic breathlessness (BREATHE): study findings. ERJ Open Res. 2022 Nov 21;8(4):00257-2022. doi: 10.1183/23120541.00257-2022. PMID: 36415651; PMCID: PMC9677245. Medline

Level Direction Primary Outcome Patient/Process Setting Reference
II Supportive (Green) 30 day mortality Patient PH-Paramedic & MD Heinonen K, Puolakka T, Salmi H, Boyd J, Laiho M, Porthan K, Harve-Rytsälä H, Kuisma M. Ambulance crew-initiated non-conveyance in the Helsinki EMS system-A retrospective cohort study. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 2022 May;66(5):625-633. doi: 10.1111/aas.14049. Epub 2022 Feb 28. PMID: 35170028; PMCID: PMC9544076. Medline
II Supportive (Green) Adverse events occurring within 48 hours of index non-transport episode Process PH-Paramedic Nehme E, Nehme Z, Cox S, Smith K. Outcomes of paediatric patients who are not transported to hospital by Emergency Medical Services: a data linkage study. Emerg Med J. 2023 Jan;40(1):12-19. doi: 10.1136/emermed-2022-212350. Epub 2022 Oct 6. PMID: 36202623. Medline
II Neutral (Yellow) Characteristics of non-transport for falls of the elderly. Process PH-Paramedic Joiner A, Fernandez AR, Van Vleet L, Cabañas JG, Grover J, Godfrey A, Crowe R, Staton C, Pavon J. Predictors of Non-Transport for Older Adult EMS Patients Encountered for Falls. Prehosp Emerg Care. 2023;27(7):859-865. doi: 10.1080/10903127.2022.2137744. Epub 2022 Oct 28. PMID: 36251394. Medline
III Supportive (Green) Hospital encounters Patient PH-Paramedic Höglund E, Schröder A, Andersson-Hagiwara M, Möller M, Ohlsson-Nevo E. Outcomes in patients not conveyed by emergency medical services (EMS): a one-year prospective study. Scand J Trauma Resusc Emerg Med. 2022 Jun 13;30(1):40. doi: 10.1186/s13049-022-01023-3. PMID: 35698086; PMCID: PMC9195370. Medline
X Not Yet Graded (White) - Larsson G, Eldh J, Hagman E, M AH. The non-conveyance of trauma patients in Swedish emergency medical services: a retrospective observational study of the trauma population not transported to an emergency department. BMC Emerg Med February 2024; 24(1):34. Medline

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